What is the TCP / IP protocol, what is it for and how does it work?

In all areas of the human being it is necessary to establish communication through an appreciable medium such as the Internet. For this to happen, TCP / IP protocols  must be in place to facilitate data transfer. Given the above, today we will talk about what the TCP / IP protocol is.

Using the Internet

Although the Internet has been famous for relatively recently, the truth is that its history is very old. In fact, we recommend that you learn what the Arpanet is and what it is for , to denote more closely what we are talking about. In turn, TCP / IP and other similar protocols are extremely important for networks as we know them today.

What is the TCP / IP protocol, what is it for and how does it work?

Of all the known networks in the history of computing, the Internet remains the most popular for its breadth and usefulness. The network of networks uses an infrastructure and the TCP / IP protocol that behaves as a primary model for the exchange of data present in the different types of computer networks .

What is the TCP / IP protocol?

TCP / IP is a set of protocols that are condensed as one and govern the Internet. TCP is the acronym for Transmission Control Protocol and IP is the acronym for Internet Protocol.

In this sense, TCP / IP is a set of standard protocols that allows to establish a connection and exchange data through a reliable transport. It is presented as a model that defines the instructions to be followed by the data which is sent in packets until it reaches its destination.

The TCP / IP protocol uses a system based on layers that allow communication to send packets between layer and layer. If a communication occurs from a lower layer to a higher one, then there is a sending of data; On the other hand, if the communication is made from a higher layer to a lower one, then there is a request for services.

What is the TCP / IP protocol for?

The TCP / IP protocol is used to carry out a reliable exchange of data in networks using computers. This model acts as a director that defines the steps to be followed by each component of the network through hierarchies.

While TCP issues the order for the packets to be transferred, IP takes care of transporting the data to other computers on the network. For this reason, TCP / IP is essential for communication between a computer and the internet to occur.

Internet protocols

How does the TCP / IP protocol work?

First, the TCP connection sends data that is divided into segments. Each of them has the destination and the data section located in the header. Then TCP reorders the segments appropriately until they reach their destination. For its part, IP is responsible for delivering the data.

It is important to note that TCP applies error control so that the segments arrive correctly. It works through a model similar to the OSI model.

This model classifies the rest of the protocols that intervene in the network. These protocols act from different layers that are necessary for the data exchange to take place. These layers are mentioned below:

  1. Media Access Layer (Network Link Layer ): The Media Access Layer includes all the computers that make up a local area network (LAN). Here you define the network topology and how the packets will be transported
  2. Internet Layer: Layer 2 is responsible for the basic packet structure, addressing, packaging, and routing of packets.
  3. Transport layer: This layer establishes the routes where the data will be exchanged between two points. In this way, the connection between the hosts is determined. In addition, in the transport layer, error control is established through the TCP protocol.
  4. Application layer: In the application layer the protocols (HTTP, FTP, DHCP and SMTP) that are used by the applications act. It is considered as an immediate layer to the user since the communication of the programs with which we interact through the network takes place.

You must bear in mind that today TCP / IP technology focuses on the IPv4 protocol and the IPv6 protocol , both essential for the operation of networks as we know them today.

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