If you want to start working successfully on the Arduino platform, it is important that you take into account basic concepts, but they are fundamental in the development of any electronic project. This is how you should know that electronics and electricity go hand in hand, since electronics is responsible for allowing the control of electricity at the will of the person .
The basic electricity that is needed to start interacting with Arduino is very simple, although it never hurts to be able to know some details about it that you may not know. For the operation of an Arduino board to develop successfully, it must have a power supply, just like any device that takes batteries for its operation .
However, the devices cannot be managed with any current, since previously each of the designed devices has the ability to withstand up to a certain current voltage . This is how here we are going to explain a little more what this means and what are all the types of currents that currently exist in electronics, for this follow in detail everything that we will teach you next in the post.
What are currents in electronics and what is this data for in device development?
When talking about electric current, it refers to the flow of electric charge that passes through a conductive material during a certain period of time, generally, this is expressed in C / s coulombs per second in the International System of Units, and that unit It is known as Amps (A).
In this way, it can be said that electric current is the transport of electric charge, said transport is carried out through the movement of electrons by conductors and semiconductors under the influence of a potential difference. For the electric current to be generated, the electrons that are farthest from the nucleus of the atom of a material must be detached and circulate freely between the atoms of that body .
All this phenomenon can also be generated by variations in nature, such as when charged clouds give off electrons that circulate through the air and cause lightning, mostly these are generated when there is a rain. In order to measure electric current it is necessary to use the “Phm Law” which uses the intensity of the voltage and the electrical resistance.
Most important elements of a stream. Which ones should I look at to work better?
When working with the electric current it is necessary to look very well at the most important elements of it, currently it is recommended to know the intensity, the voltage, the direction of the current, among some other aspects.
This is how we are going to teach you each of the most important elements that you should look at to work much better in each of your electronic projects:
It is very important to be able to know which is the direction of the current when having to work with it, in the real sense of the electric current the electrons are always circulated from the negative pole to the positive pole (-> +), but In the conventional sense that they circulate, it is the opposite, this means that they go from the positive pole to the negative pole (+> -).
All this is due to the fact that the existence of electrons was not exactly known at the time, so scientists in the area decided to apply this type of conduction sense . Currently this is one of the most important elements to know when carrying out an electronics job.
When talking about electric intensity, reference is made to the charge or electric current that circulates through an area in the unit of time, this variable is usually called with the letter I (Intensity) and its unit of measurement is the Ampere (A ). This is how all electrical conductors must support certain amounts of charges, the greater the load, the greater the resistance that the material of which it is composed will have.
It means the difference between power or electrical voltage between two points, it is also known in electronics as the amount of volts used in an electrical system .
Currently you can find different types of voltages which we show you below:
- Induced voltage: It refers to the force that is needed to be able to generate electricity.
- Alternating voltage: It is the most used voltage and it is also known as VA, it usually has positive or negative values and its frequency varies in almost all countries.
- Continuous voltage: Considered as the purest form of electric current, it is used mainly in microprocessors and electrolytic capacitors are used to obtain it.
- Direct voltage: Currently it is the most used for motors and batteries, where thanks to fuses or transformers this type of voltage can be transformed into alternating current.
If you want to measure the amount of voltage in a circuit, it is necessary to use a device known as a “Voltmeter”, but you can also use potentiometers or multimeters for its measurement.
This refers to the opposition encountered by the current through a conductor, this resistance is presented in ohms, in this way the electrons will pass through the electrical circuit in a more or less organized way depending on the type of resistance of the same. In order to obtain the electrical resistance, an ohmmeter must be used .
How is electrical current measured? Main tools used?
If what you are looking for is to measure electric current, then this can be done through a circuit where ohm’s law will be used , which was mentioned earlier in the post.
For this it is necessary to apply the following formula:
- Intensity = Voltage / Resistance.
In this case the intensity of the current will be measured in amps, the voltage in volts and the resistance in ohms . On some occasions, sources of alternating currents can be found that make the result vary constantly.
In the event that this happens, then it is necessary to use tools such as the clamp meter or ammeter, any of them will help to achieve a correct measurement of the current. In the case of the ammeter, it is connected in series with the circuit to be measured. So that this does not influence the circuit to be measured too much , the instrument must cause as little voltage loss as possible .
The other way to do this is through the clamp meter, which is a measuring instrument for alternating current that is designed as a clamp that is clamped around a current carrying conductor . In the case of clamps, a magnetic field is created around the conductive material that induces a current, which ends up being a measure of current flowing through the subject conductor.
Types of electric current What are all those that exist and how are they different?
Today you can find different types of electrical currents, each of which will allow you to achieve different results, so you should use the one that best suits your needs .
To do this, follow in detail each of the types that we are going to teach you below:
DC direct current.
It is a type of electric current of continuous flow of electric charge through a conductor between two points of different potential and charge. It has only one direction of flow circulation, so this does not vary from the positive pole to the negative pole.
To be able to dictate that a current is continuous or not, it will be necessary that its flow does not change direction but must always remain fixed despite the elapsed time, so it must always flow in only one direction. While in the case of intensity this can vary as long as the same polarity is preserved.
Alternating Current AC
This type of current is mainly characterized by offering changes over time, so the opposite happens to the previous case. Here there are changes in both direction and magnitude and at regular intervals.
In the case of the voltage of the alternating signal, it will vary between its minimum and maximum in a cyclical manner, where half of the cycle develops positive and the other half negative, said cycle will be constantly repeated. This type of alternating current is the one that is normally used in homes, offices and shops to power all electronic devices with a frequency of Hertz . It was developed and promoted by Nikola Tesla.
Quasi stationary current
It consists of an alternating current of relatively slow changes, where whose instantaneous values are affected by the laws of constant currents where they are fulfilled with sufficient precision. These laws are known as Kirchhoff’s rules, Ohm’s law, among some others. In the case of quasi-stationary current such as direct current, they present the same current intensity in each of their sections of an unbranched circuit.
Induction capacity and inductance are taken into account as grouped parameters. Normal industrial currents are practically stationary, excluding those currents in long-distance transmission lines where the condition of quasi-stationarity is not met along the line.
In this type of current it can be seen how electromagnetic disturbances propagate throughout the entire circuit with the speed of light. In this way, in the case of currents, they will vary periodically. So that you can understand this a little better, it has a current with a frequency of 50 Hz so it is almost stationary for circuits up to 100 km in length .
It is a periodic electric current that represents a sinusoidal function of time, among the alternating currents, the main one is the current, where its value will vary according to a sinusoidal law . Regarding the potential of each end of the conductor, it will change with respect to the potential of the other end of the conductor alternately from the positive pole to the negative pole and also varies in direction, passing through all the intermediate potentials including the zero potential.
The result of all this provides a current that changes direction continuously, this means that when it moves towards one direction, it increases, reaching a maximum that is called the amplitude value, then it decreases until at a point it becomes equal to zero., and then increase again, but this time in the other direction and also reach its maximum value. Finally it will decrease to go back to zero and then resumes the cycle of all changes .
It refers to the closed electric currents in a massive conductor that occur when the magnetic flux that penetrates it changes, in this case the eddy currents are considered as induction currents . The faster the process of magnetic flux change , the stronger the eddy currents.
Due to the existence of parasitic currents, an effect on the skin is led, which means that the alternating electric current and the magnetic flux mainly propagate in the superficial layer of the conductive material.
The eddy current of the conductors leads to energy losses, mainly in the cores of the alternating current coils. In order to be able or to try to reduce the energy losses due to the parasitic currents, it will be necessary to use the division of the alternating current magnetic circuits in separate plates isolated from each other and that are located perpendicular to the direction of the parasitic currents .
When this separation occurs, it limits the possible contours of their paths and greatly reduces the magnitude of these electrical currents. When there are very high frequencies, magneto-insulators are used instead of ferromagnets for magnetic circuits, where due to the resistance, eddy currents cannot be produced.
High frequency electric current
A high-frequency electric current consists of an alternating current from a frequency of approximately tens of kHz, where phenomena such as the effect of the skin or electromagnetic radiation become more significant.
In the case that the wavelength of the alternating current radiation becomes comparable with the dimensions of the electrical circuit elements, the quasi-stationary condition would be violated , this will require special approaches for the design and calculation of circuits.
Single phase current
It is formed by a single alternating current or phase as it is also known, therefore all the voltage varies in the same way . As for the single-phase distribution of electricity, they are generally used when there are loads of lighting, heating and for small electric motors .
Three-phase currents consist of a set of three single-phase alternating currents of equal amplitude and frequency, but these present a phase difference between them of 120 ° electrical and are in a certain order. Each of these single-phase currents is designated by the name of the phase .
This system has a series of benefits such as the following:
- It presents a high performance in receivers, mainly motors where the three-phase line supplies constant power .
- It has an economy in its power transmission lines and in the transformers used, so it gives a great advantage with this.
In the case of power plants, they usually use three-phase generators , because the connections to the electrical network must be three-phase, excluding low-power plants . In this way, three-phase are used mostly in industries where machines work through three-phase motors .
It is a periodic electric current, where the average value during a period is different from zero.
In this case it is an electric current that does not change its direction so it always remains constant.
It consists of an electric current where the instantaneous values repeat at regular intervals in an unchanged sequence.