If you like programming , creating and everything related to electronics, then you have probably already heard about Arduino , this being a microcontroller that will allow you to carry out different types of projects through its board so that they can perform a task physical. However, if you are starting in this world, it is best to use the Arduino Uno board.
This is because this is the best to start in programming and electronics, if it is your first experience with this program, then Arduino Uno is the best option you can take, since it is one of the most used and most robust and that most likely less problems will generate in your beginnings.
It must be taken into account that this is all about a free software platform , which is based on a microcontroller and a development environment, in order to facilitate electronics projects . That is why here we are going to explain a little more about Arduino Uno and what are the most important characteristics of this board, for this follow in detail everything that we will teach you below.
What is Arduino UNO and what are these development boards for?
It is important to mention that Arduino Uno is the last revision that exists to date of this board, it is a small electronic board that has a programmable microcontroller, but in addition to this chip it includes many other parts such as the output pins. and input, which can be programmed through the chip so that they perform different actions.
All this allows users to develop different electronics projects. This entire project began in 2005 based on the development of open source software and hardware and was aimed at students at that time, so its main use began to be in the educational field.
In this way, Arduino consists of an open platform that facilitates the programming of a microcontroller, keeping in mind that microcontrollers surround the daily life of the human being. Therefore, this allows the use of sensors in order to listen to what the physical world is and the actuators to interact in the physical world, in this way the sensors are read and the actuators are written.
On the other hand, it should be mentioned that this platform offers software consisting of a development environment that implements what is the Arduino programming language , the bootloader executed on the board and the tools to transfer the firmware to the microcontroller. In the case of Arduino Uno, the most remarkable thing is that the software and programming language offer simplicity and ease of use.
What are the main features of Arduino UNO boards?
In the case of Arduino Uno, it is the electronic board based on the ATmega328 microcontroller, it offers a large number of functions and tools such as 14 digital inputs / outputs, where 6 of them can be used as width modulation PWM output. pulse, while another 6 as analog inputs.
It also includes other tools such as a USB connector, a reset button, a 16 MHz ceramic resonator , a power connector and an ICSP header. In this way, the board includes everything necessary for the microcontroller to do all its work, you simply have to connect it to a computer using the USB cable or to the current of a transformer.
In accordance with this, here we show you the main characteristics of the Arduino Uno board:
- It has an Atmel ATmega328 microcontroller at 16 MHz.
- Chip work voltage of 5 volts.
- Recommended supply voltage 7-12v (Although it supports 6 to 20 volts).
- 2 KB onboard SRAM memory .
- 32 KB flash memory, of these 32 KB 5 KB will be used by the bootloader, so they cannot be used for other purposes.
- Integrated 1 KB EEPRON memory .
- E7S pins of 14 pins of which 6 of them are PWM.
- It has 6 analog pins .
- Continuous current intensity d 40 mA for I / O and 50 mA for pin 3.3V.
- USB interface chip .
- Power LED on PCB.
- Reset button to restart the execution of the program loaded in memory.
- Oscillator clock for signals that need rhythm .
- It has a cost in the market of approximately 20 euros .
- It has a voltage regulator built into its plate.
Functions of the pins of the Arduino UNI What are the most interesting?
Taking into account that the pins of the Arduino uno board are very important, since they can also be programmed together with the chip to perform different types of functions, then here we are going to show you which are the most interesting functions that these can develop .
To do this, follow in detail everything that we will teach you below:
As for the general functions of the pins on this board, the following can be found:
- LED: It has a built-in LED that is controlled by digital pin 14. When this pin is high, the LED will be on, but when the pin is low, then the LED will be off.
- 5v: In the case of this pin, it will allow regulated 5v to be emitted from the board’s regulator, said board is usually powered by the DC power connector (7-20 v), the board’s VIN pin (7-20 v) or the USB connector (5 v). In this way supplying voltage through the 5V or 3.3V pins can prevent the regulator and the board from being damaged.
- VIN: The input voltage to the Arduino / Genuino board when using an external power supply as opposed to 5 volts from the USB connection or any other regulated power supply. All of this makes it possible to supply the voltage through this pin or if said voltage is supplied through the power connector, so it can be accessed through this pin.
- GND: They are the ground pins.
- 3V3: This is a 3.3 volt supply generated by the on-board regulator. In this case the maximum current consumption is 50 mA.
- Reset: Mostly it is used to add a reset button to the isolators that generate a lock on the board.
- IOREF: This Pin on the Arduino / Genuino board is capable of providing the reference voltage with which the microcontroller works. All this is a correctly configured shield that allows to read the voltage of the IOREF pin and select the power supply that best suits or in this case allow the voltage translators in the outputs to function with 5v or 3.3v.
In the case of special functions, it must be taken into account that each of the 14 digital pins and 6 analog pins of the Arduino one can be used as input or output, for this, the pinMode, digitalWrite and digitalRead functions must be used where they operate. at 5 volts.
Each of these pins can receive or provide 20 mA, this will also depend on the recommended functions and also have an internal pull-up resistor that is disconnected by default of 20-50 Kohm. All this with a maximum of 40mA, this is the value that should not be exceeded at any I / O pin in order to avoid permanent damage to the microcontroller.
The Arduino uno has 6 analog inputs, labeled A0 to A5, where each of them can provide up to 10 bits of resolution that is, 1024 completely different values . By default, these measure from ground to 5 volts, although it is possible to modify the upper end of their range using the AREF pin and the analogReference function .
Where in addition, several of the pins have special functions such as the following:
- Serial / UART: pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX), used to receive (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL serial data. These pins are connected to the corresponding pins on the ATmega8u2 USB to TTL serial chip.
- PWM – Known as pulse width modulation, 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, and 11. This can provide 8-bit PWM output with the analogWrite function.
- End switches : it has pins 2 and 3, these can be configured to activate the interruption of a low value, a rising or falling edge or for a value change.
- AREF: known as the analog reference and is the reference voltage for the analog inputs.
- SPI: they are known as the serial peripheral interface where it has 10 (SS), 11 (MOSI), 12 (MISO), 13 (SCK), each of these pins are capable of supporting SPI communication using the SPI library.
- TWI: This is the two-wire interface, where it has the pins: pinA4 or SDA and pin A5 or CSL, both of which support TWI communication using the Wire library.
What are the best projects to do with an Arduino UNO board?
This Arduino platform is characterized mainly by its ease of use, and it is that it allows its users to develop relatively easy and inexpensive projects . Currently you can create an infinity of projects through Arduino Uno, this is how here we are going to teach you some of the things you can do through this platform.
To do this, follow in detail everything that we will teach you below:
A weather station
Considered today as one of the most attractive projects that can be developed from this platform, it requires the design of a small screen that allows you to display the data, while the schedule will allow you to include the forecast for subsequent days .
To make the weather station you will need an Adafruit HUZZAH board, this is the one recommended by the experts for it, a housing and a small LED screen. With these tools you can create your weather station with an Arduino Uno board.
Ambient lights for your PC monitor
Keep in mind that the ambient lights on the monitor are a luxury, they will give you a much more elegant and attractive appearance . In this case, they are in charge of detecting the colors of the edges of the screen and extending them from behind towards the wall, this allows to create a feeling of depth and very impressive immersion.
For the elaboration of this project you will need RGB LED strips and a sensor that is capable of detecting the colors of the edges of the screen . In the same way, it will have a programming that is not as simple as it may seem, but you do not need to be an expert on the platform to carry it out.
Fingerprint sensor to open doors
Surely at some point in your life you have wanted to have a fingerprint sensor to open the doors of your house and thus not have to be using a key set for it. Thanks to Arduino you have the opportunity to create this project in a very simple way, and that is because creating this fingerprint sensor will allow you to open any door in your home, it is used mainly for garage doors.
Without a doubt, this project is very useful for most people, for the elaboration of it you will need the fingerprint sensor, a housing where it will be inserted, and an optional screen where it shows the information that you want to appear there . In this way you can start automating each of the doors of your home and thus stop using keys to open each of your doors.
A control panel for the PC
It is possible that at some point in your life you have thought about having a control panel like those of spaceships, but this time to control the computer. With the Arduino Uno platform you will have the opportunity to create it in a way that is not as complicated as it might seem. For this, it is necessary that you program the plate so that a control panel works with elements of the PC, such as raising and lowering the volume of the horns or opening and closing applications.
Keep in mind that the more functions you add, the more complicated its programming will be, so the project can be as easy or as complicated as you want. To create it, you must have keypads and LEDs at hand, the amount of it will depend on everything you want to put into it. For programming, it will consist of assigning each of them the function you want.
Presence sensor to turn on the lights in your house
Arduino projects are designed with the purpose of providing some comfort to users, this is how you can also create a sensor so that the lights in your room or any other area of your house turn on automatically. Surely you have gotten up in the middle of the night in your room and have stumbled while you go to turn on the light. With this project you can change all this.
In this way you will have the opportunity to create a presence sensor that detects when you get out of bed and automatically turns on an LED strip placed under it so that it illuminates the lamp and you do not stumble . Therefore, for this project you are going to need sensors for the Arduino board and LED strips . It is important that when programming them a schedule is established and thus prevent them from turning on during the day.
Create an infinite kaleidoscope mirror
Without a doubt, this is one of the most striking projects that can be created through this platform. This mirror allows you to create an infinite kaleidoscopic illusion, which allows you to create a truly amazing effect for the eyes of the beholder.
As the orientation of the mirror moves, the lights and their colors will change, all this is very aesthetic, but it offers an amazing result. For the elaboration of this mirror you will need to have an Arduino 101 board at least or in that case with the NeoPixels or Sparkfun version and many LED strips and obviously you must have a mirror.